These are just some examples of the most common types of sources that you will run into. To clarify what information was obtained from what sources, use internal citation.
Hay, editorPlenum Press, NY, pp. The following are examples of citation from different sources. Especially now that information is obtainable from the Internet, it is important to learn how to properly cite anything that you might use in your report.
Direct quotes are rarely used laboratory reports and should be avoided. For this reason, if a source has more than one author, the last name of the first alphabetic author should be listed with an et al. Some extra little helpful hints to remember when preparing a literature cited page is that you should only include those sources that you actually used in writing your report.
In text citation This type of citation is necessary so readers know what information if factual and where it was obtained. Always check with your teacher as to the type of documentation that he or she prefers, for there are many different ways that it can be done.
The first historical extinction of a marine invertebrate in an ocean basin. Here is an example of how this can be done Carlton et al. Listing an article from a book Toole, B.
University of Richmond, VA. Be sure to note punctuation when copying these formats. Do not include sources that you have not used. Listing Journal references Bayne, B. Exercise of physiology, suing insects as models. All reference examples from Hacker, Diana. A short guide to writing about Biology.
It also allows the reader to obtain additional information if he or she wants to find out about a certain topic you addressed. Tumor Necrosis Factor is a cytokine that induces apoptosis Sarin, Biology 49 Laboratory Handout. Literature Cited page This page is all about copying a format.
In addition, always list sources alphabetically according to the last name of the author. If you are including some general information gathered from a source, then it is acceptable to put the citation at the end of the paragraph containing the information being used.
Often one obtains many sources of data when first beginning a research paper, but in the end, only a few are actually incorporated into the paper. Some effects of stress in the adult on the larval development of Mytilus edulis. Another important reason for having a literature cited page is that it allows anyone who is unsure of your data to go back and verify that you reported everything correctly, thus eliminating any uncertainty.
An example of this type of citation could look like this: Cell Biology of Extracellular Matrix E. Bedford Books of St. Exercise in Enzyme Kinetics, pp.Get this from a library! A short guide to writing about biology. [Jan A Pechenik].
In addition, owing to the growing emphasis on writing across the curriculum (WAC), biological writing classes have played a role in improving the biological literacy of students in other disciplines (Jones ; Holyoak ). Citations Within the Text There are several ways to cite the sources of ideas within the text of the report.
Either they are numbered and the number of the reference is found in the text (e.g. as in Science and Proceedings of the National Academy of Science), or they are cited by the name-and-year system (most biology journals).
Providing students with the tools they'll need to be successful writers in college and their profession, A Short Guide to Writing about Biology emphasizes writing as a way of examining, evaluating, and sharing ideas.
The text teaches students how to read critically, study, evaluate and report data, and how to communicate information clearly and.
Writing about statistics (Mi Summary 7() 5— CITING SOURCES AND LISTING REFERENCES 71 Citing Sources 71 Summary of Citation Formal Rules 75 Preparing the Literature Cited Section 76 Listing the References—General Hull s 76 Listing the Befetvnces—t'wHjj the Correct Format Tỉ A Sample Literature Cited Section 8.
book A Short Guide to Writing about Biology, by Jan A.
Pechenik (5th ed., Pearson Education, ), which explains the Author-Year style and provides examples of the citation format for the types of materials most commonly used in Biology.Download